Saturday, 29 December 2018

Burn USB Key PowerShell

Christmas bonus post...

For Christmas - amongst other things - I got 3 more Jamiroquai albums (I’ve got all 8 now) and also an Amazon Giftcard with which I purchased Anjunabeats Volume 13. So, I wanted to update my car music USB key, but needed to use a fresh USB key. I realized that the method of my 24th April 2018 post Using PowerShell to Create a Correctly Ordered USB Music Key was way too clunky, so came up with the following script.

You’ll need to copy all your music into a folder of folders first, and make sure it’s ordered how you want.

Image: Car Music folder

Then just run the PowerShell as in the below example:

.\BurnUSB.ps1 -SourcePath "D:\CAR MUSIC" -DestinationDrive F

And your USB key will be burned like a CD (since car music systems read USB keys like a CD, that is the first copied file is first in the playlist, second copied second, third copied third, etcetera.)

The Script


[System.Array]$Folders = (Get-ChildItem $SourcePath | sort-object Name).Name

Foreach($Folder in $Folders){
  [String]$NewFolderPath = Join-Path ($DestinationDrive + ":") ($Folder)
  "New-Item -Path $NewFolderPath -ItemType directory"
  New-Item -Path $NewFolderPath -ItemType directory

  [String]$ReadFolderPath = Join-Path ($SourcePath) ($Folder)
  [System.Array]$MusicFiles = (Get-ChildItem $ReadFolderPath | sort-object Name).Name

  $MusicFiles | Foreach{
    [String]$FileToCopy = Join-Path ($ReadFolderPath) ($_)
    [String]$FileDestination = Join-Path ($NewFolderPath) ($_)
    "Copy-Item -LiteralPath $FileToCopy $FileDestination"
    Copy-Item -LiteralPath $FileToCopy $FileDestination

Monday, 17 December 2018

End of Year 2018 Post (Happy New Year 2019!)

It’s been a bit of a quiet year on Cosonok’s blog. Including this post, I’ll have done 56 posts this year, which is a record minimum number of posts in a full year for Cosonok (61 posts in 2011 being the previous record minimum.) Still been busy though, with other blogs and a tiny bit of YouTube too.

Stats-wise, Cosonok’s blog appears to be in decline. Which is perhaps not surprising since prior to 2013 this was very much an IT generalists blog, but since 2013 it’s been predominantly NetApp, so more specialized and perhaps less reach. The stats, whilst fun, have never been the goal, it’s always about sharing hopefully useful stuff, an aid for my memory, and I’m always amazed and grateful that people read posts from this blog - and leave comments.

Image: Cosonok’s IT Blog Stats

All of the most viewed posts are from 2010/11/12 – which is not unsurprising – but what might be surprising is that the most viewed posts from the last month (November 16 to December 16, 2018) have 6 out of 10 posts from 2010/11/12.

Image: Top 10 Posts by Pageviews (All time)

Image: Top 10 Posts by Pageviews (last month)

I’m actually working over Christmas (except for the usual holidays and 24th) but this will be 2018’s final post. So all that’s left to say is:

Merry Christmas!

- and -

Happy New Year 2019!

Sunday, 16 December 2018

Tech Roundup - 16th December 2018

Stuff collated since Tech Roundup - 6th November 2018. With headings:
FlexPod, NetApp, NetApp ThePub, NetApp TRs, Tech ONTAP Podcast, WFA Guy, DerSchmitz


FlexPod for 3D Graphics Visualization with VMware and NVIDIA

This paper builds upon the:
FlexPod Datacenter with VMware Horizon View 7.3 and VMware vSphere 6.5 Update 1 with Cisco UCS Manager 3.2 for 5000 Seats

New NVAs

NetApp Verified Architecture
FlexPod Express with VMware vSphere 6.7 and NetApp AFF A220
NVA Deployment

NetApp Verified Architecture
FlexPod Express with Cisco UCS C-Series and AFF A220 Series
NVA Design


NetApp blows filer benchmark to smithereens – Blocks and Files

Image: SPEC SFS2014-SW Builds

NetApp Named a Leader in 2018 MQ for General-Purpose Disk Arrays

NetApp: Blog: Solving File Services Challenges with Native Cloud File Services – Part 1 (Compatibility & Continuity)

NetApp: Blog: An Introduction to Kubernetes

NetApp: HCI Means Hybrid Cloud, Not Hyperconverged

Improve Data Analytics with AWS and NetApp Cloud Volumes Service for AWS

Tool Announcement! 2018-2019 NetApp Product Poster:
The 2018-2019 NetApp Product Poster is now available for order from the NetApp Gear Store

2 New Hybrid Cloud Exams - Tips!

Read the CVO documentation as there are questions which require deployment experience i.e. disk type supported with tiering in CVO.

In both of these exams there is lot more emphasis on CVO, CVS and even working out Opex/Capex cost when deciding between on-premise and hybrid-cloud solutions.  There is a test exam on the support site if you would like to test your knowledge before you prepare for these exams.

If you are AWS or Azure certified:
This one has stuff from CVO, CSV, Kubernetes service, S3, Costing models etc.

NetApp The Pub

New since the previous Tech Roundup!

Can you keep a secret?

Just the facts ma’am

Understanding volume migration on OpenStack

Understanding volume migration on OpenStack: Intracluster volume migration

Understanding volume migration on OpenStack: Intercluster volume migration

NetApp TRs

New since the previous Tech Roundup!

Tech ONTAP Podcast (+ WITIB)

New since the previous Tech Roundup!

New ONTAP Release = Updated Technical reports!

ONTAP 9.5RC1 is available!

Episode 169: Quarterly Security Update - Winter 2018

Episode 168: NetApp Insight 2018 - Barcelona Recap

Episode 167: VMware Private Cloud on NetApp HCI

Episode 166: SnapMirror Synchronous

Episode 165: Accelerate your NAS Data with FlexCache

BONUS CONTENT: ONTAP 9.5 Feature Overview

Episode 164 - NetApp Data Availability Services


New since the previous Tech Roundup!

Wfa workflows & Powershell script for SVM Dr

Wfa Setup Workflow Generator

Workflow encrypt all volumes


How to create a NetApp Cloud Volumes ONTAP instance in AWS

“Madness?” THIS IS NetApp MAX Data!!!

Thursday, 13 December 2018

NetApp HCI Network Essentials

In order to successfully deploy NetApp HCI, it is essential that the network piece is correctly setup beforehand. The below links and diagrams are ones I’ve found helpful.

Switch Requirements for Deployment to be Successful:
(1.4) NetApp HCI Documentation Center
> Setting up and using NetApp HCI 1.4
>> Deploying NetApp HCI
>>> Requirements for NetApp HCI deployment
>>>> Network and switch requirements
(1.3.1) NetApp HCI Documentation Center
> Setting up and using NetApp HCI 1.3.1
>> Deploying NetApp HCI
>>> Requirements for NetApp HCI deployment
>>>> Network and switch requirements

Cisco document on how to set up the VPC:
Products & Services / Switches / Data Center Switches / Cisco Nexus 5000 Series Switches / White Papers

Some examples of an existing configuration:
NetApp HCI Documentation Center
> Setting up and using NetApp HCI 1.3.1
>> Deploying NetApp HCI
>>> Requirements for NetApp HCI deployment
>>>> Network and switch requirements
>>>>> Switch port configuration examples

NetApp HCI Network Setup Guide

The below diagrams come for the HCI Network Setup Guide - the important thing to note is that it is a requirement to have LACP (vPC) for the Storage Node Bond10G (technically, LACP is not a requirement, but it is highly recommended, and without it, performance will be poor - so don’t even consider it for HCI test/demo configurations.)

Note: The below might be slightly out of date for NDE 1.4.

Image 1/4: Storage Node Network Connections (Configure LACP for Bond10G)

Image 2/4: Storage Node VLAN Map

Image 3/4: Compute Node Network Connections (Do not configure LACP)

Image 4/4: Compute Node VLAN Map - Dedicated vMotion Network*

*vMotion can share the same network as management. vMotion cannot share the iSCSI subnet/VLAN.

Additional Links

NetApp HCI Documentation Resources

NetApp HCI Theory of Operations

Sunday, 25 November 2018

Creating Bootable USB Sticks to RTFI* NetApp HCI Nodes

*RTFI = Return to Factory Image

I needed to prep some USB sticks ready for an upcoming NetApp HCI install. There are various reasons why you might want to RFTI: reset a test/demo/lab environment, apply the latest versions, someone’s muddled the disks up...

Firstly, you will need a bootable USB drive maker. Go to:
And download rufus-2.6p.exe. I know 2.6 works for this purpose (I had issues with 3.3). The ‘p’ is for ‘portable’/don’t-need-to-install which I prefer, but you don’t have to go for the ‘p’ version.

Secondly, you will need to get the NetApp HCI compute and storage node images from (Product = ‘NetApp HCI’):

The ISOs are quite big. Storage node ISOs are ~4GB and Computes node ISOs ~ 15GB (mainly because it contains a few different versions of VMware vSphere).

Here I’m using NetApp HCI 1.3.1 ISOs:
- solidfire-rtfi-neon-patch3- (Storage Node)
- solidfire-NetApp-HCI-Bootstrap-OS- (Compute Node)

Image: NetApp HCI Storage and Compute Node ISOs

Step 1) Double-Click rufus-2.6p.exe to run

Image: rufus-2.6p.exe

Step 2) Storage Node

Step 2.1) Enter settings into Rufus as thus:

First check ‘Create a bootable disk using...’ and click the CD icon to the right, and point to the solidfire-rtfi-neon-patch3- (or whatever version you’re using).

Device = {Your USB Key}
Partition scheme = MBR partition scheme for BIOS or UEFI-CSM
File system = FAT32 (Default)
Cluster size = 8192 bytes
New volume label = solidfire-rtfi
Uncheck ‘Check device for bad blocks’
Check ‘Quick format’
Already checked ‘Create a bootable disk using...’
Check ‘Create extended label and icon files’

Image: Rufus Settings for Storage Node

And click Start

Step 2.2) Select ‘Write in ISO Image mode’

Image: ISOHybrid image detected - Write in ISO Image Mode

Step 2.3) Click OK to the warning


Step 2.4) Wait for Rufus to finish!

Image: Rufus done!

This will probably take about 5 minutes.

Step 3) Compute Node

Setting up Rufus for the Compute Node RTFI USB drive is pretty much the same as for the Storage Node, except you must choose ‘Write in DD Image mode’ (IMPORTANT!)

You will need to point to the solidfire-NetApp-HCI-Bootstrap-OS- (or whatever version you’re using).
I let the ‘New volume label’ autopopulate with ember-hci...

Image: Rufus Settings for Compute Node

Image: ISOHybrid image detected - Write in DD Image Mode

It took a good 40 minutes (on my system) to create the Compute Node RTFI USB drive.

Bonus Material 1 of 2: Correct Syslinux Version

One problem you’ll have with Rufus 2.6, is that it cannot download the correct versions of Syslinux, and you’ll get “The requested item could not be located”. My trick was to use Rufus 3.3 to download the correct versions of Syslinux.

Image: Syslinux 5.10/2013-06-04 is required

Image: Rufus 2.6.818 - “The requested item could not be located.”

Bonus Material 2 of 2: Why Not Use Rufus 3.3?

Rufus 3.3 works fine for the Storage Node, but not the Compute Node. Trying to create the USB key for the Compute Node, you’ll get stuck because you can’t select anything other than NTFS for File System, and when you click START, get the error message: “Unsupported filesystem: The file system currently selected can not be used with this type of ISO. Please select a different file system or use a different ISO.”

Image: Rufus 3.3.1400 - “Unsupported Filesystem”

Tuesday, 20 November 2018

If you’re headswapping to AFF A700 / A700s you might need more disk...

Some of the original NetApp AFF (All Flash FAS) platforms are reaching the age where one might consider headswapping them. One of the first things we check before any headswap (this was the same for 7-Mode headswaps) is that the root volume is of sufficient size to support the new platform, and if the root volume is too small, we make it bigger before commencing the headswap.

The AFF8020 / AFF8040 / AFF8060 / AFF8080EX have min. root volume size of 350 GiB.
The AFF A200 / A300 have min. root volume size of 350 GiB.
The AFF A700s / A700 have min. root volume size of 934 Gib / 962 Gib.

So, if you want to headswap to an AFF A700s / A700, and you had ADP RD2 partitioned root aggregates, and the root aggregate size is less than the minimum root aggregate size - which is 1 TiB - for the AFF A700s / A700, then you might need to add more disk so can you can create a root aggregate big enough to hold the root volume.

Image: HWU for NetApp AFFs with ONTAP 9.3P7-P9

Saturday, 17 November 2018

NetApp HCI: Some Notes, References and Links

I‘ve not posted anything about NetApp HCI since July 2017 (my first and only dedicated post), so about time to update!
Note: The below is correct at time of writing (mid-November 2018)

NetApp HCI Installation Workbook
This is something a customer will be sent prior to a NetApp/Partner Professional Services installation engagement. Essentially it is to make sure the environment and required information (network switches, DNS, NTP, IP address, VLANs, etcetera...) is ready prior to the PS Engineer arriving on site.

NetApp HCI Core Software
The HCI software is pre-loaded on the nodes, but if they shipped on a previous version and you want the latest, or perhaps you’re testing and want to blat it to start anew:
From the above you can download:
Software download for NetApp HCI compute node:
Software download for NetApp HCI storage nodes, Element OS:
Software download for NetApp HCI management node:

(Other) NetApp HCI Software

NetApp HCI Documentation
Key documents:

NetApp Interoperability Matrix Tool
Solution Search > Converged Infrastructure > NetApp HCI
Briefly - supported includes:
- VMware ESXi 6.0 U3 / 6.5 U1 / 6.5 U2 / 6.7
- Element OS 10.0 / 10.1 / 10.2 / 10.3 / 10.4
*See VMware HCL for all Guest OSes that are supported.

Blogs on NetApp HCI
NetApp HCI: It’s So Easy, It’s Almost Anti-Climactic
HCI - Hero from Day Zero
NetApp HCI: The first installation. The force awakens (and it glows)
NetApp HCI: Your Biggest Questions Answered

NetApp HCI YouTube Videos

NetApp TRs and NVAs
General Technical Reports:
Solution Specific Technical Reports and NetApp Verified Architectures

If you have a need to RTFI the nodes (i.e. a new version of the NDE has come out and you want to use the latest), then go to and search for RTFI. To create bootable USB keys you can use the Rufus tool from (can RTFI from the IPMIs also).

Note: If I get around to it I'll do a post on preparing bootable USB keys. The process is a little different for the compute and storage nodes.

Image: After racking, cabling, and powering, just this left to do (from the ISI)

Other Blogs
What is the NetApp Solidfire / HCI mNode?
NetApp SolidFire mNode and ActiveIQ Monitoring

Additionally, if you’re NetApp/Partner, a few extra resources:
1) check out the ‘NetApp HCI Product Page
This includes additional brainshark videos:
Also a Technical Presentation and ‘POC/Test Plan
2) The HCI PS Experts Team Sharepoint page:
Here you will find the HCI_Installation_Workbook_v2.1.xlsm amongst other things.
3) I can't remember where I got this from, but someone did a nice 'HCI SETUP - DEMO.docx'
4) Another interesting document - which came from a HCI Bootcamp - 'HCI_Installation_Process_v1.0_Generic.docx'

Sunday, 11 November 2018

NetApp Storage Encryption (NSE) Researches (Specifically with Regards to Upgrading from Clustered ONTAP 8.2.1)

Some NSE (NetApp Storage Encryption) links that may be useful if you’re looking to upgrade a system with NSE disks from 8.2.1 to 9.3. A typical upgrade path would be 8.2.1 -> 8.3.2 -> 9.1 -> 9.3 (the minimum recommended P-releases at the time of writing are 8.3.2P12, 9.1P15, 9.3P8).

How to upgrade Data ONTAP 8.3 (or prior) to 8.3.1 or later that is using NetApp Storage Encryption

NSE: How to upgrade a NSE controller with external key management (KMIP) server to ONTAP 9.3 or later

NetApp IMT
To check your solution is supported with the various ONTAP versions, search for:
Storage Solution = Key Managers

NetApp Hardware Universe
Check your platform supports the version of ONTAP you want to go to.

TR-4074: NetApp Storage Encryption: Preinstallation Requirements and Procedures for SafeNet KeySecure

Setting up Storage Encryption (in 8.2.1)

Managing Storage Encryption (in 8.2.1)

(PDF) Clustered Data ONTAP 8.2 Physical Storage Management Guide (Updated for 8.2.1)
Similar to the above two links but the PDF version. Check from page 74 “Managing Storage Encryption”.

How to configure NSE in clustered Data ONTAP 8.3.1 and later

(GPS) NetApp Storage Encryption NSE

Services Partners: NSE - How to boot NSE when Key Servers are down or unreachable

Other non-NSE Specific Stuff (Upgrade related stuff)

Clustered Data ONTAP 8.3.2 Upgrade and Revert/Downgrade Guide

{EITHER} How to Check Data ONTAP 8.3.2 Upgrade Requirements Using A PowerShell Script

{AND/OR} "Steps for preparing for a major upgrade" ~ pages 32-68

Install Validation Failed. ERROR: LIF sufficiency check failed

ONTAP 9.1 Upgrade and Revert/Downgrade Guide

Upgrading Clustered Data ONTAP 8.3x To ONTAP 9.1 Using Automated Nondisruptive Upgrade Method

Researches on NVE (NetApp Volume Encryption)

I needed to quickly swot up on NetApp Volume Encryption (NVE), hence I compiled a few links I found/thought useful. NVE has been out since late 2016 now. It’s simple (after less than 2 hours swotting, I felt I knew everything I needed to know.) Here are the links with a few notes.
Note: Some of these links require you to have already logged into the relevant website.

(2016.09.26) Behind the Scenes: Episode 59 – NetApp Volume Encryption
NVE is available in ONTAP 9.1
Previously, to encrypt data at rest on ONTAP systems (with NSE), it was an all or nothing deal.
ONTAP 9 introduced the ability to do an on-box key management (for NSE).
With NVE you can encrypt data at a per-volume level.
NVE leverages the AES-NI capabilities on CPU, so there are hardware restrictions.
Supported platforms include:
- FAS 6280 and 6290
- FAS 8xxx
- And all the newest released platforms (A series, FAS9xxx, etc)

ONTAP 9 Documentation Center
Configuring NetApp Volume Encryption
Enabling encryption on a new volume
Starting with ONTAP 9.2, you can enable encryption on a SnapLock volume.
Enabling encryption on an existing volume with the volume encryption conversion start command
Starting with ONTAP 9.3, you can use the volume encryption conversion start command to enable encryption on an existing volume.
Enabling encryption on an existing volume with the volume move start command
(The only method in ONTAP 9.1 and ONTAP 9.2.)

(VIDEO) NetApp Volume Encryption (NVE)
Setting up the key manager. Encrypting an existing volume and creating a new volume.

(2018.01.09) Worry Less in the New Year with NetApp Volume Encryption
Article by Jeff Baxter (Chief Evangelist for NetApp’s ONTAP Software & Systems Group.)

Docs & Knowledgebase > GPS > NetApp Volume Encryption (NVE)
Useful links including:
Services Partners: What are the Licensing details for NetApp Volume Encryption (NVE)?

(PDF Manual) NetApp Encryption Power Guide - ONTAP 9

(PDF Datasheet) NetApp Volume Encryption

Hardware Universe
If you need to check if platform can do NVE.

Technical FAQ - NetApp Volume Encryption
Arguably the most useful document but it is only available to NetApp Personnel and Partners. It answered a specific question I was interested in:
Q: Can my source volume be encrypted and my SnapMirror target be unencrypted, or conversely?
A: Yes. The source volume and destination volume can have different encryption settings.
Note: The published NVE datasheet contains many of details covered in this technical FAQ.